Reading I The Maya Empire
Look at the following pictures and answer these questions.
What is the name of the invention shown in the picture?
Who was it developed by?
A. Match the following words from the text with their meanings.
drought v. a long period of time when there is little or no rain
excel iii. to be very good at doing something
hieroglyph ii. a picture representing a word, syllable or sound
dominant vii. more important, powerful or easy to notice than other things
concentration vi. a lot of something in one place
invasion i. an instance of a large number of people or things arriving somewhere
excavation iv. digging ground to look for old buried buildings or objects
B. Find the words in the text and fill in the crossword puzzle.
people who follow each other in time or order
a loss of power, prosperity or status
complete with regard to every detail
a union or association formed for mutual benefit
complete disorder and confusion
very complicated and detailed
to use all of something so that there is none left
C. Choose the correct answer.
When did the Maya Civilisation reach its height?
sixth century AD ii. ninth century AD iii. 250 AD
Why were the Mayas unlikely to be invaded by the Mesoamericans?
They had scattered to many places. ii. They were concentrated in a particular area. iii. They lived together with their relatives.
What has fascinated researchers about the Mayas from the southern lowlands?
the stone cities ii. the cultural differences
iii. the pyramid buildings
Which period of the Maya Civilisation is considered the golden age?
The Medieval Period ii. The Classic Period iii. The Pre-Classic Period
Whom did the Mayas consider their god?
nature ii. the king iii. the people
According to scholars, which of the following is NOT the cause of Maya downfall?
environmental exhaustion ii. internal warfare iii. foreign invasion
- sixth century AD
- They were concentrated in a particular area.
- the stone cities
- The Classic Period
iii. foreign invasion
D. Match the paragraph numbers with the respective information.
I i. occupation of the earliest Maya society
II ii. number of people in the Maya civilisation
III iii. achievement by the Maya civilisation in different sectors
IV iv. places where the Mayas lived
V v. categories of the places where the Mayans lived
VI vi. spirituality of the Mayan people
VII vii. fights with the neighbouring states as the possible cause of downfall
VIII viii. time when the downfall of the Maya Civilisation started
I-I, II- iv, III-v, IV-iii, V-ii, VI-vi, VII-viii, VIII-vii
E. Why is the study of history important to us? Prepare a mindmap of your thoughts and discuss it with your friends.
A. Compare what Samita said in the past and what she says now.
FIVE YEARS AGO
I travel a lot. I'm a hotel receptionist.
I play the piano. I've got lots of friends.
I'm very lazy. I never read newspapers.
I don't like cheese. I don't drink tea.
I've got a dog. I go to a lot of parties.
I eat a lot of cheese now. My dog died two years ago.
I work very hard these days. I read a newspaper every day now.
I work in a bookshop now. I haven't been to a party for ages.
I don't know many people these days. I haven't played the piano for years.
I don't go away much these days. Tea's great! I like it now.
Now, make sentences using used to/didn't use to/never used to as in the example.
Example: She used to travel a lot but she doesn't go away much these days.
She used to travel a lot but she doesn't go away much these days.
She used to play the piano but she hasn't played the piano for years.
She used to be very lazy but she works very hard these days.
She didn't use to like cheese but she eats a lot of cheese now.
She used to have a dog but her dog died two years ago.
She used to be a hotel receptionist but she works in a bookshop now.
She used to have lots of friends but she doesn't know many people these days.
She didn't use to read newspapers but she reads a newspaper every day now.
She didn't use to drink tea but she likes it now.
She used to go to a lot of parties but she hasn't been to a party for ages.
Rewrite the following sentences using used to or didn't use to.
I lived with my parents.
Did you swim in the river every summer?
He never smoked.
I played tennis at school.
Villagers walked for hours to reach the nearest health post.
There was a dense forest around the village.
What did you do in your childhood?
I didn't write stories.
Did people travel by airplanes?
Where did you go to deposit your money?
I used to live with my parents.
Did you use to swim in the river every summer?
He didn't use to smoke.
I used to play tennis at school.
Villagers used to walk for hours to reach the nearest health post.
There used to be a dense forest around the village.
What did you use to do in your childhood?
I didn't use to write stories.
Did people use to travel by airplanes?
Where did you use to go to deposit your money?
Read the following story carefully. Then give it a suitable title.
There lived a fox in a forest. One day, he thought of a plan to have fun with a stork from the same forest. The fox always used to laugh at the appearance of the stork.
"You must come and dine with me today," he said to the stork, smiling to himself at the trick he was going to play. The stork gladly accepted the invitation and arrived in good time and with a very good appetite.
For dinner the fox served soup. But it was set out in a very shallow dish, and all the stork could do was to wet only the tip of his bill. He could not drink a single drop of the soup. But the fox lapped it up easily, and, to increase the disappointment of the stork, made a great show of his enjoyment.
The hungry stork was much displeased at the trick, but he was a calm-tempered fellow and saw no good in flying into a rage. Instead, not long afterward, he invited the fox to dine with him in turn. The fox arrived promptly at the time that had been set, and the stork served a fish dinner that had a very appetizing smell. But it was served in a tall jar with a very narrow neck. The stork could easily get at the food with his long bill, but the fox could only lick the outside of the jar, and sniff at the delicious smell. And when the fox lost his temper, the stork said calmly, "Do not play tricks on your neighbours unless you can stand the same treatment yourself."
The Fox and the Stork
Develop readable stories based on the given outlines.
A king……….enemies defeat him six times…… hides in a cave……… sees a spider……….. climbing the wall…………fails for six times ………. succeeds on the 7th attempt ………. the king learns a lesson. …….. collects courage and attacks enemies……… succeed…….. moral
A Defeated King
Once upon a time, there was a king. His name was Robert Bruce. He was attacked by other kings. He was defeated by them. After being beaten by his enemies, he lost his kingdom. At any costs, he wanted to retake his kingdom. He fought fiercely. He made a big troop of soldiers. He attacked them but failed each and every time. He did six efforts but he had bad fortune. Each time he got beaten. Finally, he decided to escape from there. He left there and started to live in a cave.
While he was staying in the cave, he saw a spider. The spider was trying to climb the cave's roof. But he failed each and every time. The spider failed six times but didn’t lose hope. It tried again and on the seventh attempt it got success. The king felt quite motivated. He gathered his forces, attacked his enemies, boldly engaged them for the seventh time, and ultimately succeeded over them. As a result, he found his lost kingdom.
Moral: Perseverance is the root of success.
Two friends meet a bear….one climbs a tree …the other lies down as if dead….the bear smells his limbs…..goes away…..the first man comes down and asks….what the bear said……"beware of friends who run away in danger."…..moral
Once upon a time two friends were strolling through the woods. They were aware that anything bad may happen to them in the jungle at any time. They thus made a promise to one another that they would stick together in the event of danger. Thus they were walking very carefully in the forest.
They were frightened because they saw a big bear heading their way. Immediately, one of the friends climbed a neighbouring tree. The other, though, was unable to climb. So, following his common sense, he collapsed on the ground, appearing to be dead.
The bear approached the man who was supine. It smelled in his ears before gently leaving the area. The bear thought that he was dead so it left him. It was because bears do not handle dead animals. The other friend who was on the tree became surprised. He said, "What did the bear say into your ears, my friend?" The friend the ground replied, "The bear cautioned me not to believe on a deceptive friend."
Moral: True Friend is one who always supports and stands by you in any situation.
Reading II The History of Money
Look at the pictures and answer the following questions.
What are these currencies?
What would happen if we didn't have money?
They are coins and note currencies of Nepali rupees and the American dollar.
If we didn’t have money, we cannot purchase anything.
The History of Money (page 178)
A. Find the words from the text above that have the following meanings.
r……… the period during which a king, queen, emperor, etc. rules
p……… to happen before something
r……… to control something by means of rules
c……… simply and without much skill or attention to detail
f……… to form a border around something
l……… something that somebody has done successfully
f……… an official order given by somebody in authority
s……… free to govern itself; completely independent
i……… belonging naturally; essential
Complete the table below with the correct information about the development of money.
|1200 BCE||cowrie shells used as money|
|6th century BCE|
1200 BCE cowrie shells used as money
2000 BCE coins made of metal
6th century BCE currency made of leather and animals
997–1022 CE paper currency made of mulberry trees
1821 CE the gold standard unit of currency
21st century digital payment and virtual currency
B. Answer the following questions.
What did people use to make a trade before the invention of money?
How were temples used as banks in the past?
What was the benefit of using cowrie shells as money?
Describe the coins invented by Turkey.
Why did the leaders in international finance introduce the gold standard in currency?
What form of money is being used in the 21st century?
Before the invention of money, the basis of early commerce was barter, a system of direct exchange of one product for another.
Temples were used to store grain and other valuables used in trade as banks.
The benefit of using cowrie shells as money was that they were similar in size, small, and durable.
The coins invented by Turkey were made of electrum, a natural mixture of gold and silver, shaped like beans, these coins featured the royal symbol, a lion.
The leaders in international finance introduced the gold standard in currency since the paper money (promissory note) comes with a number of problems.
The 21st century has given rise to novel forms of money including digital payment and virtual currency such as bitcoin.
How might people trade in the next 20 years? What form of money might be used? Talk to your friends.
Study the following sentences and notice simple past, past continuous and past perfect.
While I was studying, Karen phoned me three times.
They were playing football when the storm started.
While she was working in India, she began to learn Hindi.
I had finished the shopping when I met Manoj.
When we got to the party, most people had already left.
It was the best movie I'd ever seen.
He had already read the book so I gave it to his sister.
She had known him since they were children.
In 2005, I was living in Biratnagar.
She called me yesterday.
past continuous and simple past
past continuous and simple past
past continuous and simple past
past perfect and simple past
simple past and past perfect
simple past and past perfect
past perfect and simple past
past perfect and simple past
Use simple past, past continuous or past perfect forms of the verbs in the brackets to complete the following sentences.
Mr. Singh ………. (wait) for me when I reached the station.
A: What …………… (do) this time yesterday?
B: I was reading a novel.
A: ………….. (go) out last night?
B: No, I was too busy to go out.
A: Was Sapana at the party?
B: Yes, she ………. (dance) with Ravi.
A: What ………. (do) when the earthquake occurred?
B: I was cooking meal.
He …........ (fall) off the wall when Sanam pushed him.
I ………. (be) really in a difficult situation when I lost the job.
When I was young, I ………….. (want) to become a doctor.
I ……………. (do) my homework when the telephone rang.
When I last saw Kiran, he ………… (work) in his garden.
were you doing
Did you go
were you doing
Find the mistakes in the story below and correct the verb forms throughout.
This happens to me when I was in India. I used to go to my office by train. On this particular evening, I hurry to my station but when I reached there, the train has already gone. I bought a newspaper and packet of biscuits and sit on the bench. While I am reading, a man came and sits down opposite me. There was nothing special about him, except that he is very tall. I was still reading when my eyes catch a very strange sight. The man reached over the table, open my packet of biscuits, took one, dip it into his coffee and popped it into his mouth. I couldn't believe my eyes. But I didn't want to make a fuss, so I ignored it. I just take a biscuit myself and went back to the newspaper. While I was pretended to be very interested in the news, the man took a second biscuit. After a couple of minutes I casually put a biscuit in my mouth and decide to leave. I was ready to go when the man stood up and hurriedly leave. I folded my newspaper and stand up. And there on the table, where my newspaper had been was my packet of biscuits.
This happened to me when I was in India. I used to go to my office by train. On this particular evening, I hurried to my station but when I reached there, the train had already gone. I bought a newspaper and packet of biscuits and sat on the bench. While I was reading, a man came and sat down opposite me. There was nothing special about him, except that he was very tall. I was still reading when my eyes caught a very strange sight. The man reached over the table, opened my packet of biscuits, took one, dipped it into his coffee and popped it into his mouth. I couldn't believe my eyes. But I didn't want to make a fuss, so I ignored it. I just took a biscuit myself and went back to the newspaper. While I was pretended to be very interested in the news, the man took a second biscuit. After a couple of minutes I casually put a biscuit in my mouth and decided to leave. I was ready to go when the man stood up and hurriedly left. I folded my newspaper and stood up. And there on the table, where my newspaper had been was my packet of biscuits.
Do students need to learn history? Why? Write an essay on ‘The Importance of History’.
The Importance of History
We People live in the present. We plan for the future and worry about it. On the other hand, history is the study of the past. Everything that has been done is "history," and because historical periods like colonialism, industrialization, and so forth shaped modern civilization, history has a direct impact on us every day.
History is an immutable component that can be consulted for knowledge and insight into how the world came to be at the position it is today and how it will continue to grow in the future. It spans all cultures, eras, seasons, and locations. The functions of history can appear harder to define than those of engineering or medicine in a culture that quite rightly wants education to serve beneficial goals. The results of historical study are less immediate and sometimes less tangible than those that come from some other disciplines, yet they are nevertheless very important and even essential.
History has already been justified for reasons that we no longer accept. No matter how it is studied, history is an essential part of our understanding of the world. It helps us to make sense of the present, and to prepare for the future. It enables us to see the interconnectedness of events and to understand cause and effect. It helps us to appreciate the achievements of past cultures and to learn from their mistakes.
Additionally, history gives a sense of continuity and identity. It aids in our understanding of our origins and identity. It helps us understand our own values and ideas as well as the diversity of civilizations throughout the world. Most importantly, history offers a base upon which later generations can develop. Future generations will inherit it from us, and it is something we all have in common.
We can gain a lot of knowledge from history. We can discover the past's influence on the present. We can discover more about various cultures and their historical interactions. We can discover more about economics and the historical development of other societies. We can discover more about the natural world and its historical impact on humanity. In summary, history is a wealth of knowledge that can teach us about the world we live in.
Therefore, history is an essential part of our lives. It provides us with a sense of identity and continuity and helps us to understand the world around us. It is an important tool for learning and preparing for the future, which we all share in common.
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