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Unit - 7 Ecology and Environment [Class-9]

Getting started

Look at the picture and talk about the components of environment.

Atmosphere

Ecosphere

Hydrosphere

Lithosphere

Biosphere

Reading I How do Animals Spend the Winter?

Summary of the Text

Understanding

A. Answer these questions.

a. What preparations do you and your family make as the winter season approaches?

b. How do animals and birds protect themselves from the cold?

Answer

We prepare different items like food, shelter clothes etc. for the winter season.

Animals and birds protect themselves by migrating to warm places.

A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings.

a shop that sells food and other things used in homes

related to the regions around the North Pole

an underground passage

to find the right way to deal with a difficult situation

a person who works on a ship as a member of the crew

to change behaviour in order to deal more successfully with a new situation

a very small green or yellow plant that spreads over wet surfaces, rocks, trees, etc.

to gather closely together, usually because of cold or fear

 

Answer:

grocery

Arctic

tunnel

navigate

sailor

adapt

moss

huddle

Read the paragraphs A-E and match them to the suitable titles.

Paragraphs                     Titles

A                                       Going into a Deep Sleep

B                                       Migration to New Places

C                                        Other Ways to Survive

D                                        Living in Underground Holes

E                                         Adaptation to New Weather

 

Answer:

A----- Migration to new places

B----- Adaptation to New Weather

C----- Living in underground Holes

D----- Going into Deep Sleep

E----- Other ways to Survive

Write True or False against the following statements.

a. Animals wear thick coats to protect themselves from the cold.

Flying in flocks helps birds protect themselves from the cold.

Birds do not travel far to avoid the cold.

Some animals collect extra food for winter.

Snow fleas hybernate in winter.

Cold water makes it difficult for some animals to breathe.

Answer:

False

False

False

True

False

False

 

Answer the following questions.

Why do birds migrate in groups?

What controls the migration cycle of birds?

How do birds find the same place for migration each year?

Why do you think squirrels and mice huddle close together in winter?

How do animals maintain energy during hibernation?

How do frogs, turtles and fish change their habitats to survive in winter?

 

Answer:

Birds migrate in groups to balance the weather as well as to be safe.

Changes in the amount of daylight and the weather control the migration cycle of birds.

Birds find the same place for migration each year by using the sun, moon, stars etc.

I think squirrels and mice huddle close together in winter to stay warm.

Animals maintain energy by storing the food as body fat during hibernation.

Frogs, turtles and fish change their habitats by hibernating in the holes to survive in the winter.

Grammar I

Study the following sentences.

If you heat snow, it melts.

If it rains, you will get wet.

If you don't hurry, you will miss the bus.

What will you do if you miss the plane?

I may finish that letter if I have time.

If you want to borrow a book from the library, show your library card.

Water changes into vapour if it is heated.

 

Use the correct form of the verbs from the brackets to complete the sentences.

If you call me, I ……… (come).

If you ……… (not leave), I'll call the police.

Somebody ……… (notice) if you make a mistake.

If I see her, I ……… (tell) her to call you.

She ……… (be) very angry if you don’t apologise.

They will be happy if we ……… (invite) them to the party.

Will they pay any more if I ……… (work) harder?

If you don’t lock your bicycle, someone ……… (steal) it.

I ……… (lend) you some money if you promise not to waste it.

Unless you use your English, it ……… (not improve).

You must study hard if you ……… (want) to join college.

Answer:

If you call me, I will come.

If you don’t leave, I'll call the police.

Somebody will notice if you make a mistake.

If I see her, I will tell her to call you.

She will be very angry if you don’t apologise.

They will be happy if we invite them to the party.

Will they pay any more if I work harder?

If you don’t lock your bicycle, someone will steal it.

I will lend you some money if you promise not to waste it.

Unless you use your English, it can't be improved.

You must study hard if you want to join college.

Reading II

Look at the picture below and answer these questions.

What do you think the man is doing?

Why do you think he is doing so?

Answer:

The man is using pesticides indiscriminately.

He is doing so to kill all the moths and protect his crops.

The Resistant Moths

Use the correct words from the box below to complete the following sentences.

avalanche      plague       combat      predator   despair    resistant        nasty

As responsible citizens it is our duty to …………… all social evils.

The whole town is suffering from the new ……..of rats.

The minister’s opinion has created ……..of  controversy.

He got a …………cut above his eye in the accident.

Some animals do not have a natural ………

Mosquitoes seem to have become …….to the toughest insecticides.

He is in ………due to all the failures in business.

Answer:

combat

plague

avalanche

nasty

predator

resistant

despair

The word 'devour' refers to a style of eating. It means ‘eating hungrily’. The following words also refer to different styles of eating. Use a dictionary to find their meanings.

munch   ……………

nibble    ……….

gobble   …………

gnaw     ………..

swallow    .................

Answer:

‘Munch’ refers to a style of eating. It means ‘eating something steadily and often noisily, especially something hard and/or dry’

‘Nibble’ refers to a style of eating. It means ‘eating by taking small bites of something, especially food’.

‘Gobble’ refers to a style of eating. It means ‘eating something very fast, in a way that people consider rude or greedy’.

‘Gnaw’ refers to a style of eating. It means keeping biting something

Swallow refers to a style of eating. It means ‘making food, drink, etc. go down your throat into your stomach.’

B. Write whether the following sentences are True or False.

a. The first use of pesticides caused further problems to the farmers. True

b. The shopkeepers made the farmers buy many pesticides. True

c. Mahendra Yadav admits that the farmers used chemicals carelessly. False

d. The pesticides not only killed the pests but also increased the fertility of the land. False

e. Mahendra Yadav expects that the moths will go away one day. True

Answer the following questions.

a. Why do you think Mahendra Yadav says “these insects will eat us alive"?

⇒ He has applied so much pesticides as suggested by the government officials but new and tougher moths has come into existence and they are not dying. Therefore, I think Mahendra Yadav says "these insects will eat us alive".

b. What did the farmers hope when they bought the pesticides for the first time?

⇒ The farmers hoped to be rich by saving their crops and producing good amount of crops when they bought the pesticides for the first time.

c. What was the ‘nasty surprise’ for the farmers?

⇒ Despite the mixture of powerful chemicals on the potatoes, a few moths survived. It was the 'nasty surprise' for the farmers.

d. Find different words in the text that refer to the pesticide and the moth.

⇒ The different words as poison and chemicals refer to pesticides. Similarly, pests and insects refer to moths.

e. Do you think that Mahendra Yadav has made a wise decision at the end? Why?

⇒ I think that Mahendra Yadav has made a wise decision at the end because he has turned to the natural methods which is permanent solution for the problem.

D. Why is the use of pesticide harmful for both people and the environment? What could be a good alternative to pesticides? Discuss with your friends.

Students are requested to discuss and write some points

Grammar II

A. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets.

If we hurry, we ………….. there in time. (get)

I won't go to the doctor unless the pain ………… (increase)

If you spit in public place, you …………. into trouble. (get)

We ……….. for a picnic tomorrow if the weather stays nice. (go)

Everyone ……….. you if you tell them the truth. (believe)

If he ……….. up, he won't get to work on time. (not wake)

If the baby ………….. a boy, I'll call him Nitesh. (be)

You can cause an accident if you ……….. so carelessly. (drive)

Unless she …... the ambulance immediately, her father may die. (call)

If you try harder, you …….. in your exams. (succeed)

Answer:

If we hurry, we will get there in time.

I won't go to the doctor unless the pain increases.

If you spit in public place, you will get into trouble.

We will go for a picnic tomorrow if the weather stays nice.

Everyone will believe you if you tell them the truth.

If he doesn’t wake up, he won't get to work on time.

If the baby is a boy, I'll call him Nitesh.

You can cause an accident if you drive so carelessly.

Unless she calls the ambulance immediately, her father may die.

If you try harder, you will succeed in your exams.

B. Complete the following sentences with suitable endings.

If you are hungry, ………………………….. .

If he runs fast, ……………………………….. .

They will win the match if ………………………………. .

If you phone him, ………………………………. .

If Mira fails the exam, ………………………….. .

Manashi will be promoted to grade ten if ………………………… .

Answer:

If you are hungry, you can eat some food.

If he runs fast, he will certainly win the race.

They will win the match if they practise hard.

If you phone him, he will come.

If Mira fails the exam, she will leave her study.

Manashi will be promoted to grade ten if she passes grade nine.

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